安徽廣德申報「火鍋之鄉」,川渝火鍋表示不服?

提起」火鍋之鄉「,你最先想起的是哪裡?重慶?四川?北京?還是安徽?

8月28日,安徽廣德擬向中國烹飪協會申報「火鍋之鄉,一時間網友評論是這樣的:

所以,到底哪裡才是真正的「火鍋之鄉」?中國各地的火鍋到底什麼樣?

記者Simone McCarthy在《南華早報》上的一篇文章就探討了此事:

什麼是中國火鍋?它從哪來?這些問題引起了全國性爭論

文章寫到「火鍋之鄉」爭議的所在:

The decision by a town in southeastern China to declare itself the home of hotpot prompted a backlash from other parts of the country, which all have their own views on the correct way to make the dish.

一個中國東南地區小城申報」火鍋之鄉「的決定引起了其他地區的反對,每個人都有自認為正確的火鍋做法。

With different parts of China all laying claim to the title of hotpot’s hometown, we look back at the history of the dish in all its different varieties。

當中國不同地區都聲稱自己才是」火鍋之鄉「時,讓我們從不同方面來回顧下火鍋的歷史。

什麼是火鍋?

究竟什麼才是火鍋?Simone寫道,那要看你問的是誰了(It depends on who you ask)。但卻有基本的一套烹飪的法子:

The basic formula is the same: a shared simmering, bubbling vat of broth in which the diners cook their meats, vegetables and other ingredients.

火鍋的基本構成是一樣的:給用餐者烹飪肉、菜和其他食物的一個共用的、煮沸的鍋底。

But like China’s spoken language or climate, hotpots vary widely across the country – from the spicy, numbing heat of Sichuan to the fragrant chrysanthemum tastes of Jiangsu.

但是和中文或中國的氣候一樣,從麻辣的四川風味到菊花清香的江蘇風味,中國的火鍋在不同地區也大不相同

麻辣味的四川風味火鍋倒是常見,但是這「菊花清香」火鍋倒是真沒聽說過誒!

想嘗嘗。

北京火鍋:簡單樸素

文章寫道,提起北京火鍋,那就是一個字,簡單(all about simplicity),肉的話呢,也是以羊肉為主:

China’s capital is home to the Old Beijing-style hotpot, which inherited its central ingredient – mutton – from the northern nomadic tradition.

中國首都北京是老北京式火鍋的故鄉。繼承了北方遊牧傳統,羊肉成為了北京火鍋的重要組成部分

In its traditional preparation, the thinly hand-sliced meat is cooked in a volcano-shaped copper pot. Meats and vegetables are added to light broth seasoned with fragrant mushroom, ginger, and scallions

在傳統的制備中,要將薄片手切羊肉放入火山狀的銅鍋中。在由香菇和蔥薑調成的清湯中放入肉和蔬菜。

但就像北京人之間的交往一樣,在這簡單之中,卻處處透著講究。就連食材放入鍋中的順序,都有著說道:

The final ingredients to be cooked in the pot are simple: stomach meat, sliced lamb, tofu, green vegetables and thin noodles.

鍋中的食材很簡單:肚(dǔ)、羊肉片、豆腐、青菜和細面條。

Purists will insist that the ingredients must be added in that precise order.

講究的人會堅持把以上食材按照這種精確的順序涮入鍋中

天氣漸漸涼了,一桌銅鍋涮肉想想就很治愈呢。

四川火鍋:麻辣

經常有人把「川渝」火鍋放在一起,作者也表示,雖然這兩者是有細微差別的,但是它們都有一個特點,就是「麻辣」

Though they have subtle differences, both Sichuan’s capital Chengdu and the neighbouring municipality of Chongqing rely on peppercorns to give it a mouth-numbing spicy flavour.

雖然四川成都和隔壁的重慶在火鍋烹飪方法上有細微的差別,他們都通過花椒給人帶來一種麻辣的口感。

而這種麻辣口味則和其地理條件有關:

He Qiao, a Chengdu chef, said the city was hot in the summer and cold in the winter. He believes that Sichuan peppercorns and chilis 「can disperse both the humidity and cold inside our bodies, which helps keep the balance between yin and yang」

成都廚師何喬(音)說,因為這裡的氣候夏熱冬冷,四川花椒和辣椒可以將潮濕和寒意從身體中驅除,使人達到陰陽平衡

四川的火鍋文化也十分濃厚,食材也豐富。這大概也是不少人提到四川就想到火鍋的原因。

Unlike in Beijing, there is a much wider choice of ingredients for diners to choose from – basically, anything goes from congealed blood to live shrimp.

不同於北京,這裡有更多選擇,從血豆腐到活蝦都可以成為被挑選的食材。

Hotpot culture is strong in this part of the world. Chongqing residents often claim that one in five restaurants there is a hotpot place.

在這個地方,火鍋文化十分濃厚。重慶人經常說五個餐館裡就有一個火鍋店。

安徽火鍋:簡單美味

Guangde in the southeastern province of Anhui kicked off the latest controversy by unilaterally declaring itself the hotpot hometown,

安徽東南地區的廣德縣便是近期單方面申報自己為火鍋之鄉,引起爭議的地方。

相比四川火鍋和北京銅鍋,安徽的火鍋可能在知名度上並沒那麼高,但它卻也有自己的風味特色:

However, this variety is less well known compared with Beijing and Sichuan’s versions and features a heavily flavoured broth with local, seasonable vegetables.

但是,相比於北京火鍋和四川火鍋,這種火鍋鮮為人知。它的特點是有濃鬱的高湯和當地的時令蔬菜

「The simplest pot is pork stewed with radish. It’s simple, but incredibly delicious, especially in winter,」 said Mian Lugui, a university student from Guangde.

「最簡單的火鍋做法是蘿蔔煨豬肉,這很簡單,但是非常好吃, 尤其是在冬天。」一位廣德的大學生丏璐桂(音)說。

雲南愛酸、江蘇清淡、廣東喜鮮

除了上面幾種,這位作者還列出了中國各地的火鍋,雲南、貴州、江蘇、廣東……各有不同。

Yunnan in the southwest often uses ham, Guizhou in the south is known for flavours such as its sour hotpot and its use of ingredients such as cow intestine.

西南地區的雲南經常用火腿,而南部的貴州則熱衷酸味的火鍋,經常用牛腸等食材。

貴州的酸湯魚

而江蘇的火鍋則是蠻清淡的:

In Jiansgu on the east coast hotpots have a lighter flavour and are cooked with chrysanthemum.

在東部的江蘇,火鍋的口味都很清淡,鍋底加了菊花。

雲南主要食材為菌菇的火鍋

在吃上從來都「敢為人先」的廣東人,在火鍋上自然也蠻講究新鮮的。

The southern province of Guangdong, home to Cantonese cuisine, is known for its fragrant soup base and its emphasis on seafood.

中國南部的粵菜之鄉廣東,以香味濃鬱的湯底和海鮮食材聞名。

「Because the climate in Guangdong is relatively hot, people do not eat chilli. So the local hotpot is not spicy and they use spring onion, ginger, peanut oil and soy sauce instead,」 said Zhou Chao of Beijing Cooking School.

」因為廣東天氣炎熱,所以廣東人不吃辣。因此廣東火鍋是不辣的,配料一般是小蔥、花生油和醬油。「北京烹飪學校的周超(音)說。

火鍋的歷史

關於火鍋的歷史,也有不同的說法,一種說法是,火鍋最早可以追溯到三國時期:

「Its history is at least 1,700 years old,」 said Richard Zhang, the director of the Sichuan Cuisine Museum in Chengdu. 「In the Three Kingdoms era [220-280], people cooked in copper pots, but it was not popular at that time. By the time of the Northern and Southern Dynasties, people used the hotpot to cook food gradually.

「火鍋至少有1700年歷史。」成都川菜博物館負責人說,「人們在三國時期就開始用銅鍋烹飪,但那時還不是很流行。人們在南北朝時期逐漸開始用火鍋烹飪食物。」

「At first, it was popular in the cold north of China, and people used it to cook all kinds of meat. Further developments in cooking technology led to the development of more variations of hotpot.」

「一開始,火鍋在中國寒冷的北方流行,人們用火鍋來烹飪各種肉類。隨著烹飪技術的進步,各式各樣的火鍋出現了。」

而另一種說法,則認為火鍋最早可以追溯到蒙古帝國時期:

But others believe that the dish as we know it today probably has its roots in the 14th century.Some accounts trace the roots of Beijing hotpot to the days of the Mongol empire around 800 years ago.

另一種說法認為我們今天看到的火鍋可能起源於14世紀。一些記載顯示,北京火鍋可以溯源到800年前的蒙古帝國時期。

A legend from that time tells of a emperor impatiently waiting for his lamb leg to cook as he prepared for battle. His ingenious chef decided to speed up the process by chopping up the meat and boiling it, thereby giving rise to a new dish.

一個蒙古帝國時期的傳說中提到一位皇帝因為準備打仗,很不耐煩地等羊腿做好。他聰明的廚師決定加快做羊腿肉的速度,於是將肉切完後直接煮熟,因此發明了一種新的烹飪方法。

在上世紀30年代,重慶開了第一家火鍋店,而今,火鍋店已經開遍全世界:

The first restaurant known to have served the dish appeared as late as the 1930s. Fittingly enough it opened in Chongqing, whose own variety of the dish is now flourishing across the globe.

已知的第一家火鍋店出現於20世紀30年代,在再恰當不過的重慶開業。現在,不同種類的重慶火鍋已在全世界蓬勃發展。

如今,中國的火鍋餐廳已經將連鎖店開到了世界各地。

不少外國人也感受到了中國火鍋的美味和中國飲食文化的魅力。

好了,講了這麼多的火鍋,哪種才是你的愛呢?

編輯:李雪晴

實習生:薛宇航

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