老實說,我真的消費「降級」了……丨夜聽雙語

2018.8.26 •周日

消費降級

它貴它有理,窮是我的錯。

修身

揮霍

今年聽的最多的兩個詞就是消費升級和消費降級。

前者火的時候好像所有人突然一下子就都在用旗艦智慧型手機,喝精釀啤酒,買神仙水,敷前男友面膜,或者說走就走去了北歐4國。

又好像沒過多久,一線城市的年輕人們又說茶杯裡泡的是枸杞,吃的是街頭巷尾的沙縣拉面雞米飯,用的手機摔爛了屏也沒換,上面還下載了拼多多。

這種忽窮忽富的魔幻現實感。有外媒報導說:

Chinese consumers are increasingly engaged in buying overseas imported products through online channels, and it has been widely interpreted as a sign of consumption upgrade happening in China. Amid discussion of the Chinese online consumers, the phenomenal popularity of Pin Duo Duo, a social e-commerce known for unbelievable low price and bargain, drives people to question the real purchase power of Chinese consumers. (Azoya)

中國消費者越來越喜歡網購海淘進口商品,這一現象也常被解釋成消費升級的表現。就在關於中國線上消費者的討論中,社交電商拼多多憑借超低價格的商品迅速躥紅,這也催生了對於中國消費者真實購買力的質疑。

The ‘consumption downgrade’ argument, boasted by media from newspapers to WeChat official accounts, says that Chinese customers are less willing to pay for over-priced products. Pin Duo Duo (PDD), a mash-up of social and e-commerce, amassed over 200 million users within 2 years, was labeled as the leader of ‘consumption downgrade’. (Azoya)

「消費降級」的論調老是被紙媒和微信公號提起,說是中國消費者們越來越不願意為價格過高的產品買單。社交電商拼多多在短短的前兩年發展時間內就聚集了2億用戶,它也被當做是「消費降級」的先鋒。

拼多多被說成是消費降級的源頭。但消費降級真的意味著消費者們在產品質量上的妥協嗎?

Sorgem Advance在文章中提到:

While the consumption upgrading in China – people are looking for high-end products of premium quality, consumption downgrade is happening at the same time. It is about looking for the most reasonable price, paying for the most appropriate product, spending rationally, and living smartly.

中國的消費升級——人們追逐質量過硬的高端產品——如火如荼之時,消費降級也在同步發生。消費者們尋求的是最合理的價格,最合適的產品,理性消費,聰明生活

This evolution is especially evident among 2 groups within the population: young consumers with limited financial resources and utility-driven consumers living outside the 1st tier cities. These people tend to buy cellphones from the domestic brand Xiao Mi (小米) with only 1/3 of the price of an iPhone, workout using training APPs such as Keep instead of paying for a personal trainer in an actual gym,and use group shopping APPs such as Pin Duo Duo to get a good bargain by joining more people they know into buying the same product.

這場演變在兩大群體上尤為明顯:一是財務資源上受限的年輕消費者,二是一線城市之外的那些實用至上的消費者。這些人傾向於購買國產品牌的手機,像是小米的手機就只有一台iPhone價格的三分之一;健身鍛煉就會用Keep這樣的應用,而通常不會去健身房請私教;他們可能還會用拼多多之類的拼團應用團購商品,人越多折扣越好。

上文說消費降級的兩大主力軍之一是財務上比較受限的年輕消費者,說白了就是窮學生和窮白領。

可能是一二線城市的高房租、高物價讓人重拾「勤儉節約」的美德。

Many Chinese are cutting conspicuous consumption – lavish spending to indicate social prestige – and are turning to cheaper substitutes. (SCMP)

很多中國人都開始削減那些明顯過高的開支——為了彰顯社會地位的奢侈花費——轉而購買更便宜的替代品。

Shen Weipeng is a 29-year-old trust manager in Beijing, working in one of the highest-paid vocations in China. His after-tax income last year was about 260,000 yuan. (SCMP)

29歲的沈為鵬在北京做信托經理,這是中國高收入職業之一。他去年的稅後收入大概有26萬元人民幣。

He decided to cut his spending this year by replacing his favorite cocktail with water, cancelling a planned trip to Europe and sticking with his current mobile phone even though the screen is badly cracked. (SCMP)

今年他卻打算削減開支,放棄愛喝的雞尾酒轉而喝白水,去歐洲的既定旅程也取消了,手機螢幕爛了也還是一直用著不打算換。

Shen said he was trying to save money because he had a monthly mortgage payment of 11,000 yuan on his flat and was concerned about his income prospects. (SCMP)

沈說自己在努力存錢,因為他每月得還11000元的公寓房貸,而且還得為收入前景擔憂。

Shen’s financial situation is not unusual in China, where discretionary spending is often limited by a large mortgage payment. (SCMP)

沈的財務狀況在中國並不鮮見,很多人的「可酌情支出」都因為大額的房貸而被迫削減。

Consumers are pulling back on their spending on discretionary items as income growth slows and household debts rise. (SCMP)

收入增速放緩,家庭債務增加,消費者們只能在有自主權的商品上收回要剁的手。

The ratio of rent to disposable income in Beijing and Shenzhen is 58 and 54 percent respectively, according to data compiled by Chinese property service company E-House. (SCMP)

房產服務商E-House的數據顯示,北京和深圳的房租占可支配收入的比重分別是58%和54%。

前面說到北京和深圳的房租占可支配收入的比重分別是58%和54%。

用來描述「食品支出占個人消費支出的比重」的系數叫做恩格爾系數,有網友就開玩笑說自己的「房格爾系數」已經超過了警戒線。

一想到自己超過一半的薪水都拿去交了房租,很多消費欲望就沒法兒生長了。

老生常談的年輕人買房話題,Reddit網友也很有創意,大大的標題黨寫著:

Contrary to popular belief, millennials can still afford to buy homes.

和大家想的不一樣,千禧一代還是買得起房。

看到圖忍不住哇的一聲哭出來,算了,北上廣深不相信眼淚,勒緊褲腰帶兒吧。

今天的節目就到這兒,親愛的你,晚安,想買的夢裡都有。

Notes

consumption: n 消費

phenomenal: adj 了不起的;非凡的

amass: v (尤指大量地)集聚,積累

premium: adj 高昂的;優質的

utility: n 實用

conspicuous: adj 顯眼的;惹人注意的

lavish: adj 奢華的;耗資巨大的

vocation: n (認為特別適合自己的)職業;工作

discretionary: adj 自行決定的;酌情行事的

disposable: adj 可支配的

主播:拉面

編輯:唐曉敏

這是「夜聽雙語」第27期的節目,下周日見!

本欄目由中國日報雙語新聞與奧德賽閱讀聯合出品。

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